<p>A battery management system (BMS) provides the necessary information by fast and reliable detection of the State-of-Charge (SoC), State-of-Health (SoH), and State-of-Function (SoF) in terms of cranking capability. So, the BMS is able to minimize the number of vehicle breakdowns due to unforeseen battery failure, to maximize lifetime and efficiency of the battery, and to enable CO2 saving functions. The key element of the BMS is an Intelligent Battery Sensor (IBS), which measures battery terminal voltage, current, and temperature and calculates the battery state.<i>The complete article (click here ) describes the implementation of a BMS using state-of-the-art algorithms for calculation of SoC, SoH, and SoF and the efficient implementation of these on Freescal's IBS for lead-acid batteries, courtesy of Automotive Designline Europe. </i></p>

In Lesense, states and the conditions used to select them are programmed through descriptors that can be chained together to form relatively complex operations where needed, or restricted to simple outputs if that is all that is required. In this way, it is possible to build quite complex logic before intervention need be sought from the processor core.

Thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity and thermal expansion are all related, not to mention brittleness. It’s what we call an overconstrained system.”

Ming Cheng, technical director of 3M’s Electronics Markets Materials Division, said 3M is essentially a materials company with the capability to tune the properties of adhesives and polymers to meet even these conflicting specifications. Our adhesive will be a combination of different types of polymers, oligomers and monomers, along with the necessary feelers and adhesion promoters that meet IBM’s specifications.”

M55342K08B4H70PWL_Datasheet PDF

According to 3M, it has not yet been decided whether the jointly developed 3-D IC adhesive will be sold to other chip makers. But in the past IBM has made a practice of licensing its key patents even to competitors.

M55342K08B4H70PWL_Datasheet PDF

M55342K08B4H70PWL_Datasheet PDF

3M also has experience with the fluids that are used today to cool hot spots in rack-mounted computers, and those fluids could soon flow through microfluidic channels cut into 3-D ICs. Even if you have the perfect adhesive, it may be necessary to remove heat from the internal layers of a tall stack,” said Meyerson. A microchannel-cooled radiator halfway through the stack could take out a bunch of heat from the middle of a silicon brick.”

RETS is neither for every designer nor for every application; you must understand its possible pitfalls before you attempt to apply it. What’s more, as a practical matter, brick-wall filters are DSP-based and exist only in the digital domain. The data they process must therefore be in digital form, which means that a brick-wall filter must follow—not precede—the ADC. Reconstruction filters are different; scopes can include a DSP-based brick-wall reconstruction filter, and reconstruction filters with brick-wall characteristics are common in high-performance scopes. In cases that involve sampling at the limits of ADC capabilities, however, antialiasing filters must be analog circuits.

These filters affect the waveforms you observe. If you are interested in how your SUT (system under test) handles very-fast signal edges, you should look closely at the characteristics of your scope’s reconstruction filters. In other words, the step response that you observe can have more to do with the response of your scope than with the response of the SUT.

The standard for reconstruction filters in scopes for years has been gaussian response, which corresponds to a constant time delay at all passband frequencies and necessitates a gradual roll-off of the sine-wave-amplitude response as the signal frequency increases. Now, however, some scope manufacturers provide a choice of reconstruction-filter characteristics; you can choose the filter characteristic that best suits the measurement. Gaussian filters tend to slow the displayed rise times, whereas properly chosen brick-wall filters do not. Unlike gaussian filters, however, brick-wall filters introduce their own artifacts, most notably preshoot that precedes the beginning and overshoot that follows the end of signal transitions, or steps. To provide the best of both worlds, reconstruction filters can even combine constant delay at lower frequencies with a brick-wall characteristic in the transition band.

Experts argue that preshoot—a response to a stimulus that occurs before the stimulus reaches the SUT—is a purely mathematical artifact that cannot exist in real physical systems, whereas overshoot often is real, although the overshoot your scope displays may not accurately represent your SUT’s actual response. The scope may introduce artifacts that can produce erroneous results in eye-diagram tests, a widely used technique for estimating the BER (bit-error ratio) of data-transmission channels.

The waveform record of a DSO (digital-storage oscilloscope) comprises a series of digital representations of analog samples, in which each sample corresponds to the signal voltage at a specific instant. Equal amounts of time separate each instant from those that immediately precede and follow it. This statement is true even though the scope might not have captured the samples sequentially—for example, the scope might have used RETS (random equivalent-time sampling), also called random interleaved sampling, to increase its effective sampling rate beyond its maximum real-time sampling rate (Reference A).


It is also important that location information of a mobile provides marketing data to many organizations and also to the user trying to locate a specific type of business. Applications such as tracking can also be implemented as an LBS; only a handset is required to track a vehicle.

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