KOA Speer Electronics, Inc.

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Random access memory (RAM) requirements depend on the number of connections and buffer sizes, and typically range from 32 to 256 kilobytes. Read only memory (ROM) requirements depend on the type of CIP profile implemented, and typically range from 64 to 128 kilobytes.

Support for Multiple Targets Graphical programming environments have evolved to target any 32-bit MPU or DSP. In order to achieve this, most tools require a one-time effort to make the target recognizable in the graphical environment. Once the specific target is ported into the environment, programming it is like programming on the desktop. The benefit of porting the targets is that the same program can be used to target multiple hardware with little or no code changes.

Figure 8 shows a simple example graphical program that targets three different sets of DSP hardware: the NI SPEEDY-33 (TI VC-33), SpectrumDigital TMS320C6713 DSK and the Analog Devices ADSP-BF533 DSP board.

what is the function of a map sensor

Conclusion In the recent years DSPs have become extremely popular among embedded designers owing to their benefits of low-power, low-cost and high-processing power. There are many domain experts in the design community who are not experts in DSP-programming, but would like to use a DSP in their application. These experts need an easy-to-use tool to quickly prototype and deploy their design. In this paper, we have shown how graphical programming environments cater to these needs, providing an easy-to-use and robust platform to design, prototype and deploy DSP applications. Graphical programming environments such as LabVIEW lead to faster development and time-to-market owing to built-in functions and configuration-based development. We also showed how graphical programming environments support multiple targets, providing an ideal prototyping platform to determine the best hardware target for a particular application.

References [1] A. Benveniste and P. Le Guernic, Hybrid Dynamical Systems Theory and the SIGNAL Language,” IEEE Tr. on Automatic Control , Vol. 35, No. 5, pp. 525-546, May 1990[2] N. Halbwachs, P. Caspi, P. Raymond, D. Pilaud, The Synchronous Data Flow Programming Language LUSTRE,”Proceedings of the IEEE , Vol. 79, No. 9, 1991, pp. 1305-1319[3] P. Hilfinger, A High-Level Language and Silicon Compiler for Digital Signal Processing”, Proceedings of the Custom Integrated Circuits Conference , IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, CA 1985, pp 213-216[4] The Ptolemy Project http://ptolemy.eecs.berkeley.edu/[5] Overview of LabVIEW

what is the function of a map sensor

Parallel busses have been the mainstay for small displays especially for QCIF to QVGA resolutions. However, system trends of higher resolution displays, streaming video, higher frame rates and increased color depth, make a parallel bus implementation impractical. These challenges are further compounded by key system requirements of lowest power and lowest EMI for the interface.

Ever-increasing bandwidth Displays are increasing in both physical size and resolution for portable applications. Smaller bezel sizes allow for a larger active area to fit into current application form factors. Resolutions are also increasing, providing a finer viewing experience. Frame rates are also on the rise to 50-60 frames per second (fps) to provide smooth video, and 18-bit and even 24-bit color depth is replacing the older RGB565 (16-bit) color depth. These trends require more bandwidth. For example an 18-bit RGB HVGA display (320 x 480), at 60 fps and with 10 percent blanking requires a Pixel Clock (PCLK) of 10 MHz, and a resulting pixel bandwidth of 180 Mbps.

what is the function of a map sensor

The parallel paradox The solution in the past to upgrade a parallel bus from RGB565 to full 24-bit RGB would be to simply add more lines. Thus 24 RGB signals, up to 3 video control signals (HS, VS and DE) and a PCLK are required for a total of 28 signals. With these changes were implemented, the problems began.

The first challenge is physical space, more signals means more interconnect which is physically larger and not aligned with target small portable applications. Second is cost, a wider flex costs more since it requires more connector pins, and also pins on the host and target devices–all of which are cost drivers. Battery life is always of utmost importance. More signals is a multiplier in terms of power dissipation, again not the trend desired for portable applications. The next key attribute, is EMI. Noise generated from the streaming video interface generally increases as the number of signals increase.

A distorted Load Current waveform can be the result of a non-linear load such as a rectifier, variable speed drive, discharge lighting, or a switching power supply typically found in most computers and sophisticated electronic equipment.

The National Electric Code limits the continuous current drawn through the equipment line cord to 80% of the rating of the receptacle. For the standard 15 A receptacle (NEMA 5-15R) the limit is 0.8 x 15 = 12 Amps

This limits the Apparent Power to S = V RMS x A RMS = 120 x 12 = 1440VA for a 120 volt utility line

One example of this level of integration is the Fujitsu MB91F465XA, a new 32-bit microcontroller, the company's first to feature an embedded FlexRay interface. This MCU is aimed at automotive OEM, Tier-One and third-party companies delivering tools and software for automotive applications or test equipment.

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