Quam Nichols

<p>The good news is the industrial revolution produced many new industries. AI will be similar, with the need for new skills and extensive training.</p>

–Now based in San Francisco, Roberta Beta” Antunes is an entrepreneur and the CEO of Hack, a laptop designed to encourage kids to code.

Some trends in infrastructure look like no-brainers. The lower costs of soft functionality, for one, appear to make SDN/NFV a foregone conclusion for future network switches and base stations.

Yet foregone conclusions can turn out to be anything but. Scaled granularity from small cell to picocell to femtocell was the presumptive natural path for 5G, but the architectural model of widely proliferated femtocells hasn’t found the expected degree of market reality. Users and service providers tolerated a coarser granularity at the neighborhood and single-building level because it was cheaper to deploy than a cell in every living room.

positive temperature coefficient

Similarly, ad-hoc networks characterized by dial-up bandwidth on demand would seem to be a given for 6G, but unexpected market demands or shifts could change those expectations.

NOT SO FAST The irony in launching a 6G discussion in 2018 is that only the first round of 5G standards, known to 3GPP as Release 15, are in draft stages of definition. At a minimum, additional standards packaged as Releases 16 and 17 will be debated through the middle of the next decade, and many analysts expect even more releases for 5G. That could push early implementations of 6G out to 2030 or beyond.

In the meantime, interest in 5G deployments is flagging, for three reasons that should have been obvious.

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First, the rise of 160-MHz channels and 4×4 multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) antennas promises theoretical data rates of up to 10 Gbits/second, translating to several hundred Mbits/s at the handset. Sounds great, but service providers have been polling users on the cost vs. benefits of such upgrades, and their findings cast doubt on whether such speeds are necessary for traditional smartphones.

The second 5G goal is serving mission-critical applications requiring low latency, fault tolerance, fast failover, and ultrahigh reliability. First-responder radio networks obviously can use such a feature set, but will the users of police and medical-radio subnets be willing to underwrite the primary costs of 5G deployment?

positive temperature coefficient

The final goal for 5G, IoT and autonomous-vehicle connectivity, has the opposite problem. Networks must support tens of thousands of low-data-rate nodes. Work on special networks such as Long Term Evolution (LTE) Category 0 has been robust, but industrial and automotive networks cannot shoulder the deployment costs of 5G.

The deployment conundrum of 5G, seen from service providers’ perspective, is bad enough in bands below 3GHz. For the most flexible sub-3-GHz services, carriers will need to provision a variety of small cells, including pico- and femtocells — an approach that attracted few users and lost money when it was tried in 2010-2015. Newer services, such as millimeter-wave long-distance offerings in the 11-GHz band, will require even more dedicated equipment, which might pull in new businesses — but only if the new commercial users emulate the diversity of military millimeter-wave users.

For example, the Z100 is designed to play back MPEG-4, besides Windows Media Video, and Sendo chose PacketVideo as its partner. PacketVideo (San Diego, Calif.), which develops software solutions to deliver rich media over today's wireless networks, offers a platform called PVPlatform enabling encoding, transmission and decoding services. The PVPlatform also provides error resilient technologies that recognize and conceal the transmission errors prevalent in wireless networks.

The Z100 features WAP, HTML 3.2, and Compact HTML — currently used by NTT DoCoMo in its popular i-mode. Sendo added to the new smart phone support for Compact HTML, because There are European operators planning to roll out i-mode applications,” Schaeffer said.

Sendo has been working closely with Texas Instruments in Z100 mobile phones. The new smart phone is based on a dual processor architecture featuring both ARM7 and ARM9, according to Schaeffer. The decoding of MPEG-4 is handled in software in one of the ARM cores. Due to the operators' demand for Java, Z100 will also feature a Java Virtual Machine (JVM). Asked if Sendo plans to use a hardware-based Java accelerator, Schaeffer said, We will be soon announcing a partner on JVM that's designed to run very fast and optimized to our platform.”

Sendo is finalizing operator agreements by testing the unit, while setting up a developer program to provide its partners with early access to its software and hardware. Besides PacketVideo, Sendo plans to work with a number of select partners to develop applications and services.

Already supplying its first three GSM dual band mobile phones in Europe and in parts of Asia, Sendo, founded in August, 1999, expects to sell over a million units of phones in 2001.

Combined, ATI and Nvidia have more than an 80% share of the discrete graphics IC market and have made significant headway in advancing application programming interface-based visual effects and boosting graphics processing speeds. Intel, meanwhile, owns the majority share of the integrated graphics market, where performance has typically been sacrificed in favor of reduced memory requirements and smaller circuit boards.

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