Here's Part I.

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Critical Link

<p>Assessing a battery's health A lead-acid battery has two key attributes that tell how healthy” it is: </p>

Here's Part I.

There is a continuum along which the deployment of IPTV is moving. This goes from design and manufacturing to full deployment. At each stage the test objectives and needs are different and, in order to move efficiently and cost effectively through each stage, the need for test and the selection of the right test equipment is essential. Design requires in-depth tests for standards compliance and interoperability of video and network infrastructure equipment. Manufacturing requires consistent, rapid and repeatable functional test and results logging. Early deployment and trials requires tools that provide rapid fault identification and diagnosis of IP, video and voice faults. This requires best-in-class point-monitoring and analysis solutions that can look at the content (User Plane), the control and setup (Control Plane), and the physical layer. For full deployment and ongoing system management the emphasis will shift from monitoring and testing parts of the network to 24/7 real-time monitoring of the whole network (which could be global). Network-wide monitoring will not be trusted to small niche players, best-of-breed system suppliers will be used.

Today, the most of the major IPTV rollouts are in an early deployment phase. The key objective during this phase is for operators to get it working” and as the telco's learn more about the broadcast world they are realizing that video content is unique. Unlike any other content type, video requires guaranteed available bandwidth in a best effort network, and is intolerant to network jitter and lost packets, is intolerant to resends and out-of-sequence packets, and poor quality is highly noticeable. All of these have an impact on the viewers Quality of Experience (QoE). An experience that is equal to, or better than, that on standard broadcast systems is a critical success factor for IPTV systems. IP networks are best effort” networks by nature. As a consequence they are prone to jitter and packet loss and the allocation of guaranteed bandwidth requires special control, protocols and the effective application of network management policy.

RNR60E2873BSBSL_Datasheet PDF

There are three key steps that need to occur during this phase of deployment.

Throughout these stages engineers require test equipment that brings the broadcast and telecom's worlds together. That equipment needs to act as the translator between broadcast and telco engineers. The equipment is required to perform comprehensive Quality of Service (QoS) e.g. network jitter, lost packet, and QoE Control Plane and User Plane (e.g. IGMP response, PCR jitter) measurements. To aid rapid fault isolation and diagnosis the ability to see and correlate errors across the different layers of the network is essential. For example, are all the errors that occur on the IP layer causing video errors?

The development of the correct test equipment requires not only world class engineering but a deep understanding of the technologies involved. What is needed to assist both sides in speaking the same language is a solution that gives engineers working between both worlds the ability to clearly understand the problem, isolate it, and remedy it. Tektronix is the world leader in both video and modern IP network test, measurement and monitoring tools. With that knowledge, heritage and expertise Tektronix holds the secret decoder ring that allows them to successfully bring IPTV services to market.

RNR60E2873BSBSL_Datasheet PDF

Returning to where we began. Prostetnic Vogon Jeltz graciously goes on to destroy the earth to make way for a planned intergalactic highway. The collision and convergence of the broadcast and telecommunications world will undoubtedly be more beneficial to mankind.

About the author Ian Valentine is the Director of Marketing for Video Products and is responsible for the development of the baseband (SD and HD systems) and compressed (MPEG-2, H.264, VC1) video test product strategic roadmaps for Tektronix. This responsibility includes Tektronix's IPTV strategic direction and the development of related video products. During his career, Ian has held a variety of positions in General Management, Engineering, Sales and Marketing. He has over 20 years experience in the hi-tech industry, the last 10 years having been in the Broadcast industry. Ian is currently focused on the challenges surrounding the convergence of the broadcast and telecommunications worlds and the required test methodologies and solutions to help bring IPTV services to market. Ian holds a BSc (Honours) in Electrical and Electronic Engineering from Dundee College of Technology. He can be reached at

RNR60E2873BSBSL_Datasheet PDF

Editor's note: This article and the subsequent articles provide an introduction to Sound. It is excerpted from the book Audio in the 21st Century published by Intel Press. This excerpt is from Chapter 2 of the book. All material is copyright Intel.

Sounds of Interest Certain sounds make recurring appearances in the field of acoustics. We have already discussed sine waves, a.k.a. pure tones, in some detail.

Now UPnP has embarked on version 3.0, an effort to set an API for parameterized QoS. It will study and build on existing work on interconnects such as FireWire and power line. Parameterization will be defined not so much as a new feature but as an extension of the existing priority API, said Messer.

Groups such as HGI, Cable Labs and the Digital Living Network Alliance (DLNA) expect to refer to the UPnP API on parameterization when they write their own specs. DLNA also hopes to become a forum for a broader discussion about how to unify separate QoS efforts.

We're working to define an interoperability model where different QoSes can coexist and leverage each other's strengths,” said Scott Smyers, who is chairman of the DLNA.

The problems of the hybrid home network will be the burden of the upper layers of the software stack for people like Mediabolic to sort out,” said Andres Melder, a senior vice president of business development at power line chip maker Intellon. Mediabolic (San Mateo, Calif.) is one of a growing handful of home net software specialists.

Another middleware company, NetStreams (Austin, Texas), aims to address the same issues with its StreamNet software for handling multimedia over any distributed home net supporting TCP/IP. Its software, running on a TI DSP, is available on an integrated chip or a board.

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