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<p> Dr. Pankaj Rohatgi is a technologist with deep experience designing a secure hardware systems. At Cryptography Research he helps lead new research and services efforts relating to tamper resistance solutions and differential power analysis.</p>

Since joining Intel Corporation in 2000, Hoffmann has been instrumental in establishing an early incubation of connected vehicles for DaimlerChrysler, now Chrysler, by promoting standards-based software and hardware alignment and helped institute a high performance computing cluster which reduced the auto company's costs substantially. With a background of sales and technical experience in automotive, telecommunications and consumer electronics, Hoffman has previously created business plans for the Michigan Connected Vehicle Proving Center, developed marketing strategies for Skyway Systems, now Inilex, and held a board seat in the Connected Vehicle Trade Association on Intel's behalf.

The design of a generator system requires many hours of detailed planning with the goal of creating an extremely reliable backup power source. Properly installed, the system will deliver the intended level of reliability. However, if incorrectly wired, the system can become a problem for both the owner and the manufacturer.

While the generator installation can be handled by a range of people, from a trained technician to the typical homeowner, wiring mistakes can occur. Installation includes working with 120 VAC split phase, 240 V line voltage, along with low-voltage signals below 50 V. A small and easily made mistake, such as miswiring high voltage to low voltage, will destroy sensitive electronics quickly and may render the equipment inoperable.

MCR100-8-TA_Datasheet PDF

Thus, a resettable overcurrent and overvoltage solution capable of handling line voltage, electrostatic discharge (ESD), electrical fast transients (EFT), and current surge is required to protect low voltage interface circuits against this problem.

Typically, a circuit consisting of a relay, resettable fuse, and metal oxide varistor (MOV) would protect against such threats. To improve on the circuit's time response, current-handling capability, and satisfy demanding space constraints, an improved circuit design is presented.

Additionally, a solution is provided to effectively ease the difficulty of coordinating primary- and secondary-circuit protection. The proposed solution incorporates a fast-acting resettable fuse to alleviate the challenges mentioned above, thus providing scalable, universal circuit protection for use at all exposed low-voltage generator terminals.

MCR100-8-TA_Datasheet PDF

Generator Installation Environment An overview of the generator installation and its interfaces is provided in Figure 1 . Terminals on the interface strip can be miswired during installation: 120 V split phase, engine interlock, and general I/O. A controller internal to the generator monitors AC line voltage.

Typically, a 10-second interruption of AC mains power will turn on the low-voltage relay-driver circuit, energizing the transfer-switch relay. The transfer-switch relay is connected to the generator with a 500 mA cable, ten to fifty feet long, which is exposed to inductive transients from close proximity to the mains-circuit panel wiring.

MCR100-8-TA_Datasheet PDF

The cable length is indeterminate during the installation, and protection for this transient environment must be anticipated. To protect the mains supply, a Transient Voltage Surge Suppressor (TVSS) is required at the breaker panel to ensure adequate line surge suppression and a primary level of networked protection for the generator system.

User controlled personality settings – there are a number of personality settings that the end user can control and needs to be able to update in the field. An example is the volume setting on a BlueTooth headset. It needs to be adjusted by the end user, but it is not likely to be changed every few minutes over the life of the product.

Real time data logging – much as code storage pushes the limit on total bit count, real time data logging pushes the limit on endurance. In this case, the NVM can be used as a black box” to track environmental conditions, log faults, or a range of other parameters. Endurance requirements can range from 100k cycles (equivalent of more than 1 cycle every hour for 10 years) to 1M cycles (1 cycle every 5 minutes for 10 years).

Technology Overview Once the application’s use requirements are mapped out, it is much easier to wade through the myriad options of embedded NVM. In general, there are two basic parameters for embedded NVM. The first is the number of endurance cycles.

This ranges from simple OTP that can only be written once to reprogrammable NVM that includes MTP and few times programmable (FTP). The other key parameter is the processing.

There are a number of solutions that can be integrated directly into a standard CMOS process with no additional masks or processing steps, but there are also mask adder” solutions such as flash, MRAM, FeRAM, SONOS, etc. that require additional processing steps and complexity in order to implement the NVM.

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Figure 10-13: IP classes [10-2]

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