<p>Combined with our advanced IDDQ measurement solutions, we are now offering a solution that covers the complete current spectrum and guarantees a high defect coverage for multi-million gate components at minimal test efforts and costs. IDDT testing also offers a proper alternative for complex timing and delay tests.” said. Hans Manhaeve, president and CEO of Q-Star Test.</p>

Opticom said that NOK 7.7 million (about US$1.1 million) was lent to two primary insiders” who provided Opticom shares as collateral. The loans, on which interest is being charged, are due to be repaid as and when the shares issued are free to be sold.

Zooming in on conventional spread (see J. Dubois et al., Impact of source/drain implants on threshold voltage matching in deep-submicron CMOS technologies,” ESSDERC 2002) and on gate spread reveals that with spending more area the conventional spread contribution decreases but that at the same time the gate spread contribution increases. As a result, the maximum usable transistor area is limited by gate leakage spread. For 180-nm and 120-nm CMOS technologies this maximum area is very large and hence the reachable levels of matching are very good. However, for the 90-nm and 65-nm (estimated) generation this yields a maximum usable area of respectively 104 micron2 and 103 micron2; then gate leakage mismatch is a significant effect that limits the reachable matching figures. For these and newer CMOS generations, active mismatch cancellation techniques or matching insensitive designs will be required.

One strategy analog designers can adopt to deal with the use of lower supply voltages is to operate critical parts of the circuitry at higher supply voltages, by exploiting combinations of thin- and thick-oxide transistors.

ERJ3EKF4423V_Datasheet PDF

Operating analog circuits outside nominal supply rails can solve the low-supply drawback of newer technologies. However, care should be taken with respect to lifetime issues: hot-carrier degradation due to high lateral electrical fields and gate oxide degradation due to high oxide voltages. Both effects can be minimized by a suitable limitation of terminal-pair voltages.

For circuits operating at high” supply voltages, a number of robust high-voltage-tolerant transistors can be used (see the figure for three examples derived from high-voltage I/O circuits) and see A. J. Annema et al., 5.5-V tolerant I/O in a 2.5-V 0.25-micron CMOS technology,” IEEE JSSC, 2001, 528-538. These HV transistors enable direct reuse of most older designs, running at supply voltages corresponding to the original design.

The easiest way is to use the (nowadays available) thick-oxide transistor, which is comparable with the two-generations-ago standard transistor. However, to benefit from technology scaling, the use of smaller devices, as in Figs. 1a or 1b, can be preferable to the use of thick-oxide transistors, as in Fig. 1c.

ERJ3EKF4423V_Datasheet PDF

Transistors for which matching, 1/f noise or output impedance is critical may be realized with the compound structures in Figs. 1a and 1b. The disadvantage of these structures is that a suitable cascode voltage must be provided, which already must be present during powering up. This can be realized using internal cascode-voltage generators, at the cost of circuit complexity. If only a small part of a system is critical, one may choose to generate high voltage on-chip using charge pumps, but they are typically inefficient.

The three topologies were designed to handle the same maximum drain-source voltages. Under assumption of equal drain current, Vgs-Vt, and the same length for the lower devices, Fig. 1a is always preferred above Fig. 1b. Compared with Fig. 1c, 1a has higher Rout, lower 1/f noise, better matching-but lower fT-higher circuit complexity and higher gate current.

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The decrease in 1/f noise is under the assumption that the type of gate oxide material is unchanged. So for application in, for example, a current source, the circuit of Fig. 1a is preferred, while for high-speed voltage amplification applications Fig. 1c is preferred. It must be noted that if the required voltage drop over the output terminals of Fig. 1a can be reduced by the rest of the circuit, then the upper cascode(s) can be removed, and 1c has hardly any speed advantage.

In conclusion, analog circuits can benefit from technology scaling if the supply voltages are not scaled down, unlike in their digital counterparts. High-voltage techniques are thus needed; Fig. 1 shows some ways to create high-voltage-tolerant composite transistors.

While VeriWave is not talking about its product, the startup is talking about its investors. In today's announcement, VeriWave said that US Venture Partners (Menlo Park, Calif.) and TL Ventures (Wayne, Pa.) have funded the company. VeriWave did not provide a specific funding number but DelMonico said the number is less than $10 million.

VeriWave is currently developing its WLAN test platform. The company expects to launch the product to market later this year,

WASHINGTON — In two separate decisions issued Thursday (Feb. 12), the FCC reaffirmed its minimalist approach to regulating voice-over-Internet Protocol (VoIP) and other IP services.

The moves are designed to ensure more opportunities for consumers through VoIP, while recognizing the advantages of other services in terms of communications costs, innovative services and features, greater economic productivity and growth and expanded network redundancy.

The agency released a long-awaited notice that commissioners recognized not only that Internet services should continue to be subject to minimal regulation, but also that mechanisms to implement important social objectives, such as public safety, emergency 911, law enforcement access, consumer protections and disability access, may change as communications migrate to Internet-enabled services. In connection with this proceeding, the FCC announced that it will initiate a Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement (CALEA) rulemaking to address the technical issues associated with law-enforcement access to Internet-enabled services. That proceeding will address the scope of covered services, assign responsibility for compliance, and identify the wiretap capabilities required.


The Niagara family could address networking by dedicating a subset of its multi-threading capability to processing network packets, the report said.

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