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In the fall of 2011, engineers from Princeton Power Systems (PPS), a New Jersey-based manufacturer of advanced power-conversion products and alternative-energy systems, demonstrated their latest green power product. This demand response inverter (DRI) was the result of a three-year collaboration between PPS, the United States Department of Energy and Sandia National Laboratories’ Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS).

This article was originally published on EBN, an EE Times sister publication .

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WSF45273K480DHEB_Datasheet PDF

To keep up with the growth in number of Internet users, usage, and data rates coming from both wireline and wireless, networking equipment must scale in performance.At the same time, the network must deliver a robust user experience free from delay and down time and support new requirements such as service level agreements, IPV6, and intrusion detection.Not only is the fundamental packet rate increasing dramatically to 100s of gigabit per second in the core and aggregation, but the number of lookups per packet to support the added services is also increasing.

Next generation deployments will begin with ASIC and FPGA based line cards in Metro Ethernet, Carrier and Core Router applications. We are going to examine the discrete applications and solutions necessary to achieve the performance requirements and at the same time deliver the quality of service necessary through network operations, administration and management.

Networking line rates have traditionally increased by more than 2x every 18months, outstripping Moore’s Law and in an attempt to keep pace with the ever increasing demand for high bandwidth content delivery and fast, reliable connectivity. Add to that the challenge of flexibility to handle new intelligence, standards and features.This creates significant challenges to memory throughput and access rate.FPGA based line cards compatible with high performance memory architectures allow the combination of bandwidth, intelligence and flexibility needed to process packets in real time and deliver a robust user experience free from delay and jitter. Studies have proven the tangible value of a quick, robust user experience, which requires almost continuous bidirectional traffic as opposed to the streaming bandwidth of high definition video. The real time processes for a responsive user interface are sensitive to latency and jitter whereas traditional networking traffic has either been insensitive or uses arbitrary buffering techniques as a stopgap. The days of ‘best-effort’ services are over; dropping a legitimate packet due to congestion leads to a degradation of customer service, while indiscriminant buffering can be even worse. Fundamentally, packet processing needs to occur deterministically and in real time as network performance continues to scale.

WSF45273K480DHEB_Datasheet PDF

Memory is used for three fundamental operations in networking equipment: buffering packets, packet header processing for switching and routing (decision process), and monitoring those decisions for network management or accounting purposes.This series of articles will consider these three as broad applications, recognizing that within each is a finer delineation. We’ll be considering memory solutions for buffering, statistics, metering, state memory and general table lookup applications.

As a benchmark for examination we are considering processing aggregate data rates of 200 Gigabit Ethernet (GE) which is challenging the abilities of memory subsystems to keep up. At the 200GE packet arrival rate of 3.3 nanoseconds coupled with the requirement to process the packets in real time leads us to a new era in networking memory requirements. The general requirements to implement in FPGA using traditional memories are outlined as follows:

WSF45273K480DHEB_Datasheet PDF

For each of these applications we will compare current best practices for implementation and compare memory solutions.

Webinar on safety-critical applications

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For many diabetics checking blood glucose is an everyday part of life, especially for patients with Type-1 diabetes who always have to keep a close eye on their levels as their bodies are incapable of producing the insulin to break down the glucose in the blood. Several times a day, they have to place a tiny drop of blood on a test strip. It is the only way they can ascertain the blood glucose value, so they can inject the correct amount of insulin needed. And this pricking is not only a burdensome: it may also cause inflammation or cornification of the skin. 

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