<p>The Safe Motion capabilities, while integrated in the form factor of the drive, are wholly independent of the drive-integrated PLC. Another benefit of the Safe Motion subsystem is the use of configuration rather than programming as a means to deploy the safety logic. Taking the complexity of programming out of the safety product, which can help facilitate the validation process of the safeguarding strategy.</p>

Bluetooth is defined with three power classes. Class 1, the highest power class, is traditionally used for fixed equipment (PCs, printers etc) due to the higher power consumption requirements over Class 2 operation. There were many benefits in offering class 1 operation. However, to date, the extra power consumption, which impacts battery life, has inhibited the widespread adoption of class 1.

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IPv6's method of implementing address hierarchy through allocation policies leads to a subtle but important departure from the traditional IPv4 address-management concepts. At the time of this writing, in the case of IPv6, an enterprise no longer owns its global address space. The address space it is using is a subset of their ISP's allocation. This means that an enterprise will have to go through network renumbering every time it changes ISPs. Despite IPv6's features that make renumbering easier, this process would carry an operational impact.

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Because IPv6 interfaces can support multiple unicast addresses, the migration from one ISP to another one can be done through a transient period where the prefixes from both old and new ISPs coexist on the customer network. Operational experience for this type of situation still needs to be developed to evaluate the impact on medium- and large-size enterprises when switching between IPv6 ISPs. Nevertheless, as enterprises become interested in IPv6, this aspect of address management is often listed as a major concern. For this reason, large, multinational enterprises started to get involved in policy meetings of the Internet registries, lobbying for changes to the allocation mechanisms.

About the Authors Ciprian Popoviciu is a technicala leader at Cisco with more than eight years of experience designing, testing, and troubleshooting large IP networks. He currently focuses on the architecture, design, and test of large IPv6 network deployments in direct collaboration with service providrers worldwide. Ciprian holds a bachelor of science degree from Babes-Bolyai University, a master of science degree and a doctorate degree in physics from the University from the University of Miani.

Eric Levy-Abegnoli is a technical leader in the IP Technologies Engineering Group at Cisco Systems, where he is the technical lead for IPv6 development in IOS. Before joining Cisco, Eric worked for IBM, where he successfully led a development team in the Networking Hardware Division and a research team at the Thomas J. Watson Research Center, focusing on networking and content delivery platforms. Eric received the Diplome d'Ingenieur from the Ecole Centrale de Lyon, France.

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Patrick Grossetete, manager of product management at Cisco Systems, is responsible for a suite of Cisco IOS software technologies including IPv6 and IP Mobility. He is a member of the IPv6 Forum Technical Directorate and manages Cisco's participation in the Forum. In June 2003 he received the IPv6 Forum Internet Pioneer Award,” at the San Diego Summit. He received a degree in computer technology from the Control Data Institute, Paris, France.

To contact the author, please email: and use Deploying IPv6 Networks/post question as the subject line.Title: Deploying IPv6 Networks. ISBN: 1-58705-210-5 Authors: Ciprian Popoviciu, Eric Levy-Abegnoli, Patrick Grossetete. Chapter 2: An IPv6 Refresher. Published by Cisco Press

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Reproduced from the book Deploying IPv6 Networks. Copyright [2006], Cisco Systems, Inc. Reproduced by permission of Pearson Education, Inc., 800 East 96th Street, Indianapolis, IN 46240. Written permission from Pearson Education, Inc. is required for all other uses.

*Visit Cisco Press for a detailed description and to learn how to purchase this title.

A key advantage of the SiP is its flexibility of integration, allowing designers a choice of memory densities or memory technologies, such as flash or SRAM. Similarly, highly complex or highly specialized chips that provide unique functionality or precision, and that would be difficult or impossible to integrate into a single SoC, become possible with SiP technology. For example, it is possible to combine GaAs high-performance designs with standard CMOS digital chips for use in an RF application.

In addition, some of the required IP may not be available in soft- or hard-macro format that is easily integrated into an SoC, but by integrating into a SiP, many of the performance goals can still be achieved. Usually, SiP development time is shorter since the components do not require as much design verification at the functional level.

Thus, the cost to develop the SiP design can be substantially lower than it is for an SoC. Furthermore, if a complicated substrate is limited only to the SiP module, then the entire system board does not require as many layers or impedance control. That reduces the system pc board costs and allows changes to be focused on the SiP itself, rather than on the entire system board.

However, with these advantages, there are still many challenges facing SiP development. One primary concern is the higher cost and development time for many new packaging technologies compared with those for standard off-the-shelf packages. Although SiP technology has matured into the mainstream, it is primarily offered by first-tier packaging and testing houses. Along the same lines, many of the EDA tools for electrical/mechanical system designs for high-speed applications, as seen in SiPs, are not commercially available and thus require in-house development. The current EDA tools for silicon design do not completely cover the mechanical aspects that are encountered with SiP designs.

Another key challenge facing SiP technology is the availability of known-good dice (KGD) needed when designers want to incorporate bare dice onto the substrate of a module. Many IC manufacturers do not offer KGD as standard products. One reason is that KGD involve a more challenging test flow and process than standard packaged parts. In particular, full functionality (which may include at speed” binning) must be performed at the wafer level rather than at the package level. This becomes a challenge for both the tester and the probe fixture.

In laptop design, ambient-light sensors are typically placed next to the speakers where the case has an opening for light. These audio portals are commonly covered by a cross-hatch pattern to protect the speakers. Because of this protection, and because the light sensor is next to the speaker instead of on top of it, the light is obstructed. The obstruction reduces the amount of light available to be measured, thus requiring a solution with good low-light accuracy. For the accuracy needed in low-light conditions, the best sensor choice is the integrated photodiode with an ADC, Figure 4 .

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