Amphenol

<p> Because the density of solid explosives is nearly the same as other organic matter, the X-ray device is set to react indiscriminately to substances that have the same density as organic matter. To make matters more complex, passengers often carry on food items that have nearly the same density level as explosives, the automatic reaction function of the X-ray can falsely react–making automatic inspection difficult at best. </p>

Alternatively, two I/O pins can join a third dedicated pin as independent current sinks for indicator LEDs with programmable fade, on-off, and blinking control (Figure 3). The remaining pins are programmable as keypad or general-purpose I/O.

while (serverFlag) {      Socket mySocket = srv.accept();      BufferedWriter serverResponse = new BufferedWriter(new OutputStreamWriter(mySocket.getOutputStream()));      BufferedReader clientRequest = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(mySocket.getInputStream()));

A String object is declared and it is used to hold the text that the client is sending to the server via the socket. It's read from the socket via the readLine() method. The string is printed to the screen in which the server was invoked. It is then scanned for the text that would result if the QUIT form element on the web page being served by our server has been depressed. If it finds it, we set our flag so that our continuous loop is stopped and the server is shutdown. A goodbye/final count web page is served to the client before the shutdown.

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If the input from the client does not indicate a QUIT, it increments our count variable and serves the web page right back to the client with the revised count. All of the web page serving is done via one of two methods. Once the client has been served either a goodbye page or a revised count page, the clientRequest stream and the mySocket Socket object is closed.

            String str;                  str= clientRequest.readLine();                  System.out.println(str);                  if (str.startsWith(GET /?QUIT”)) {                        serverFlag = false;                         sayGoodbye(serverResponse, count);                  } else {                        count++;                         writePage(serverResponse, count);                  }                  clientRequest.close();                  mySocket.close();                        }      } catch (IOException e) {            e.printStackTrace();            System.out.println(Problem with main”);      }}

This method, writePage(), writes an HTML web page using the HTTP protocol to the client via the socket. It takes a BufferedWriter and an integer as arguments. The first two lines written represent the HTTP protocol sever response header. The rest is HTML text.

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The web page is actually a very simple page that features a count, representing the number of times the page has been served. The HTML also contains a form having two buttons. One button is pressed if you want to increment the count, the other is pressed if you want to shut down the server.

After writing the text to the socket, we catch any IOException that may have occurred. All writing to the socket is done via the BufferedWriter.write() method.

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public static void writePage(BufferedWriter wr, int df) {      String str=String.valueOf(df);      try {            wr.write(HTTP/1.0 200 OKn”);            wr.write(Content-type: text/htmlnn”);            wr.write(

n”);

This method, sayGoodBye() also writes an HTML web page using the HTTP protocol to the client via the socket. Like the writePage() method, it takes a BufferedWriter and an integer as arguments. The first two lines written represent the HTTP protocol server response header. The rest is HTML text. This web page prints the final count and some text saying goodbye.” After writing the text to the socket, we catch any IOException that may have occurred. All writing to the socket is done via the BufferedWriter.write() method.

As per example shown in section on 'Implementing ping', we assume that a node has just received a buffer containing an IP header, UDP header and UDP payload. The node will look at this data, and return a response. Each of these 'transactions' is unique, and performed one at a time. This allows the software to respond to requests from many remotes (all having different IP addresses). The essence of the transaction method is that no information is stored between one transaction and the next. Each process is independent of each other. The procedure, starting from the handling of the IP header is as follows:

1. Look at the first byte of the received packet (the first byte of the IP header). Multiply the lowest nibble by 4 and store in a variable called 'IP header length'. Its value will be most likely 20 if no optional extra headers are present. Compute the IP headers checksum to ensure that it is consistent. This is done by calling a checksum function over all the 16 bit words forming the IP header (include any options headers if present). If the result is not FFFFhex, silently discard the message and exit the function (do not generate any error messages). If the checksum was FFFFhex, the IP header is error free. Continue to the next step.

2. Check the destination IP address in the IP header. If this matches with ours, proceed to the next stage. If it does not, silently discard the message, the IP packet was not addressed to us. This situation is unlikely to happen in a wired LAN environment, as the Ethernet controller will have filtered out any messages with the wrong hardware address.

3. Check the protocol flag in the IP header. If this is 11hex, proceed with the UDP handling; otherwise, pass the message to another protocol handler, for example ICMP or TCP.

4. Compute the UDP checksum. This is done by calling a checksum function over all the 16-bit words of the UDP header plus payload (do not include the IP header). If the payload length was odd, do not forget to add a padding byte of zero to the end of the data area. Save this checksum value, and proceed to compute the checksum of the pseudoheader. This can be done by individually adding each of the 16-bit word fields in 1's complement, or by the use of a special software function dedicated to this. It is most likely that all the required fields will be already available at various dispersed locations in the memory buffer. Use Figure 7-11 to identify the fields to check. Add the two checksums together. If the result is not FFFFhex, silently discard the message and exit the function (do not generate error messages). If the checksum was FFFFhex, the UDP message is error-free, proceed to the next step.

Latency is also a concern for data center applications such as clustering. Figure 9 shows a latency comparison between a telecom-style fabric and a 2-tier fat tree. For the telecom-style fabric, it's assumed that packets must be queued both on ingress and egress in external memory to accommodate segmentation and re-assembly. It also assumes the backplane switches operate in cut-through mode with latencies of 200ns per stage and there is additional FIC pipeline delay of 200ns. As expected, the latency increases verses packet size for the store-and-forward telecom-style fabric.

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